Which cutter is used for gear cutting on milling machine?

The type of tool that must be selected for gear cutting on the milling machine


1. Integral tool


The integral cutter is one of the commonly used tools for gear milling. It consists of a cutter holder and a cutter head. The tool shank can be straight or shank, providing stable support for the machining process. The design of the cutter head depends on the type and accuracy of the gear required. The advantages of integral cutting tools are high processing efficiency, stable cutting, and high reliability.


2. Shaping cutter


The shape of pinion cutters differs from solid cutters because they contain cutting pins. This type of cutter is more suitable for large gear machining than solid cutters because shaper cutters can cut gears with larger diameters and weights. The advantage of the shaper cutter is that the cutting shapers are replaceable and easy to maintain.

Whether using solid or gear-shaping tools, spray lubrication is also very necessary when machining gears. It is easy to generate high temperatures while processing gears on a milling machine. Lubricating oil can lower the cutting temperature, reduce friction, shorten processing time, and can reduce tool wear and increase tool life.

In summary, choosing the right tool is very important for machining gears. Both integral and gear-shaped tools have their own advantages and disadvantages, and they need to be selected according to specific processing needs. At the same time, spray lubrication is also essential during processing, which helps reduce tool wear, shorten processing time, and increase processing accuracy.


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Selection and use of cutting tools in gear machining


The cutting tools used in machining centres are composed of general-purpose cutting tools (also called work heads or cutter heads) and tool holders that match the tapered hole at the front end of the spindle of the machining centre. In application, the tool must be selected correctly based on the requirements of the machining centre machine tool, fixture requirements, performance of the workpiece material, processing procedures, cutting volume and other related factors.

The general principles for tool selection are: the tool is easy to install and adjust, has good rigidity, and has high durability and precision. On the premise of ensuring safety and meeting processing requirements, the tool length should be as short as possible to improve the rigidity of the tool.

On the machining centre machine tool, various tools are installed in the tool magazine, and the tools are automatically changed according to the provisions of the program. Therefore, standard tool holders must be used so that tools used in drilling, boring, expanding, milling and other processes can be quickly and accurately installed on the machine tool spindle. Programmers should fully understand the structural dimensions, adjustment methods and adjustment range of the tool holders used on machine tools in order to determine the radial and axial dimensions of the tool when programming.

The tools used in the machining center machine tools must adapt to the characteristics of high speed, high efficiency and a high degree of automation of the machining center. The tool shank part must be connected to the general tool and installed on the machine tool spindle. Due to different types of machining centres, the type and size of the tool shank are not exactly.

JT (ISO7388) represents the taper shank for machining centre machine tools (with manipulator clamping groove). The numbers behind it are the corresponding ISO taper numbers, such as 50, 45, and 40 representing the big end diameter of 69.85 and 57.15 respectively. and 44.45mm 7:24 taper. ST (ISO297) represents the taper shank used in general CNC machine tools (without manipulator clamping grooves), and the numerical meaning is the same as the JT category. BT (MAS403) means a connection with a manipulator clamping groove for the Japanese standard MAS403.


The tool holders of machining centre tools are divided into two categories: integral tool systems and modular tool systems.


Modular tool system


The modular tool system is currently a commonly used type due to its high positioning accuracy, easy loading and unloading, good connection rigidity, and good vibration resistance. It consists of a tool holder, a middle connecting rod, and a working head. It has the connection characteristics of single-cylinder centring and radial pin locking. One part of it is the hole and the other part is the shaft. The two are inserted and connected to form a rigid tool holder. One end is connected to the machine tool spindle, and the other end is connected to the machine tool spindle. Installing various indexable tools forms a tool system.

Depending on the machining centre type, Morse and metric taper shanks are available. There are two types of intermediate links: equal diameter and variable diameter. They connect the tool holder and the work head module according to different inner and outer diameters and lengths. The working head includes indexable drill bits, rough boring tools, fine boring tools, reamers, end mills, face milling cutters, spring chucks, tap chucks, Morse taper hole adapters, cylindrical shank tool adapters, etc. type. According to different processing workpiece sizes and process methods, various tools such as milling, drilling, boring, reaming, and tapping can be combined as needed for cutting processing.


General tools can be divided into the following types according to the materials used in manufacturing: (1) high-speed steel tools; (2) carbide tools; (3) diamond tools; (4) other material tools, such as ceramic tools, etc.


The cutting process of tools is very complex and has many influencing factors. During milling, the properties of the tool material, tool type, tool geometric parameters, cutting speed, cutting depth and feed rate all affect the cutting force, thereby affecting the entire process system, and ultimately affecting the processing accuracy and quality. When processing on a machining centre machine tool, the spindle speed is generally at least 1 to 2 times higher than that of an ordinary machine tool. Therefore, when milling is performed on a machining centre when selecting a tool, the size of the tool must be consistent with the size of the workpiece being processed. Suitable for surface dimensions.


For surface milling, non-regrinding carbide end mills or end mills should be used.


Generally, two passes are used. For the first pass, it is best to use an end mill for rough milling and continuous passes along the surface of the workpiece. Choose the width of each pass and the diameter of the milling cutter so that seams do not affect the accuracy of fine milling. Therefore, when the machining allowance is large and uneven, the diameter of the milling cutter should be smaller. When finishing, the diameter of the milling cutter should be larger, and it is best to be able to cover the entire width of the processing surface. In actual work, indexable fine-tooth face milling cutters are generally used for semi-finishing and finishing planes, which can achieve ideal surface processing quality, and can even achieve milling instead of grinding. The densely distributed knife teeth greatly increase the feed speed, thereby improving cutting efficiency. When precision cutting planes, 2 to 4 teeth can be set.

Indexable spiral end mills are suitable for high-efficiency rough milling of step surfaces, elevations and large grooves of large workpieces. If you replace the blades of different brands, it can process a variety of materials such as steel, cast iron, cast steel, and heat-resistant steel.

A carbide spiral tooth-end mill is a finishing tool used for processing cast iron, steel parts, and non-ferrous metals. The blade is generally welded.

End mills and end mills with carbide inserts are mainly used to process bosses, grooves and box surfaces. In order to improve the machining accuracy of the groove width and reduce the types of milling cutters, a milling cutter with a smaller diameter than the groove width is used during processing. The middle part of the groove is milled first, and then the tool radius compensation (or diameter compensation) function is used to mill both sides of the groove. Carry out milling.


End mills are generally used to mill the peripheral contours of disk parts.


The tool radius of the end mill used must be smaller than the minimum curvature radius of the inner contour of the part. Generally, it is 0.8 to 0.9 times the minimum radius of curvature. The processing height of the part (cutting depth in the Z direction) should not exceed the radius of the tool. When milling the rough surface, it is best to use a carbide corrugated end mill, which can perform powerful cutting if the machine tool, tool, and workpiece system allow it.

In short, the machining centre machine tool is a relatively complex system, and programmers must master how to make the correct selection according to the actual situation. Only by fully understanding the structure and selection of machining centre tools can we use them flexibly in actual work to improve work efficiency and safe production.

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